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Ad Targeting
(Ad Targeting) In online advertising, ad targeting refers to the practice of advertisers attempting to reach (target) a specific desired consumer audience.

Ad-Hoc Mode
(Ad-Hoc Mode) An 802.11 networking framework in which devices or stations communicate directly with each other, without the use of an access point (AP). Ad-hoc mode is also referred to as peer-to-peer mode or an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). Ad-hoc mode is useful for establishing a network where wireless infrastructure does not exist or where services are not required.

Added Value
(Added Value) The value that is added to any product or service as the result of a particular process. For example, VARs add value to systems through the loading of applications or proprietary software onto computers and ASPs add value to the services they provide.

Administrative Domain
(Administrative Domain) A collection of networks, computers, and databases under a common administration, such as an enterprises intranet. The devices that operate in a singular administrative domain share common security features that are administered across the network and the entities that are associated with it.

(ADS) (pronounced as separate letters) Short for alternate data stream, a function of Microsofts NTFS file system in which files can be embedded in other files and are invisible to the user through Windows Explorer (i.e., the ADS does not affect the size, function or display of the main file the ADS is attached to). While ADS files (which are well known throughout the hacker community) can be used maliciously by an attacker wishing to plant an executable file into another file without it being detected, ADS also is used legitimately by programmers.

AdSense - Google AdSense
(AdSense - Google AdSense) is an advertising placement service by Google. The program is designed for website publishers who want to display targeted text, video or image advertisements on website pages and earn money when site visitors view or click the ads. The advertisements are controlled and managed by Google and Web publishers simply need to create a free AdSense account and copy and paste provided code to display the ads. Revenue using AdSense is generated on a per-click or per-impression basis. It is free to become a verified website publisher in the Google AdSense program.

AdWords - Google AdWords
(AdWords - Google AdWords) is an advertising service by Google for businesses wanting to display ads on Google and its advertising network. The AdWords program enables businesses to set a budget for advertising and only pay when people click the ads. The ad service is largely focused on keywords. Businesses that use AdWords can create relevant ads using keywords that people who search the Web using the Google search engine would use. The keyword, when searched for triggers your ad to be shown. AdWords at the top ads that appear under the heading "Sponsored Links" found on the right-hand side or above Google search results. If your AdWords ad is clicked on, Google search users are then directed to your website. When choosing keywords for your AdWords campaigns different matching options are available. The two main keyword match options include the following: Broad Match: This reaches the most users by showing your ad whenever your keyword is searched for. Negative Match: This option prevents your ad from showing when a word or phrase you specify is searched for. Phrase Match: Your ad is shown for searches that match the exact phrase. Exact Match: Your ad is shown for searches that match the exact phrase exclusively.

The process of identifying an individual, usually based on a username and password. In security systems, authentication is distinct from authorization , which is the process of giving individuals access to system objects based on their identity. Authentication merely ensures that the individual is who he or she claims to be, but says nothing about the access rights of the individual.

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Short for Web browser, a browser is a software application used to locate, retrieve and display content on the World Wide Web, including Web pages, images, video and other files. As a client/server model, the browser is the client run on a computer that contacts the Web server and requests information. The Web server sends the information back to the Web browser which displays the results on the computer or other Internet-enabled device that supports a browser.

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In computer-based training (CBT) also called computer-assisted instruction (CAI), certification refers to both the program and the process a student must go through to obtain certification in the studied area. Certification also includes testing and assessment that must be met by the learner with a minimum acceptable score.

Cloaking - Also known as stealth, a technique used by some Web sites to deliver one page to a search engine for indexing while serving an entirely different page to everyone else. There are opposing views as to whether or not cloaking is ethical. Opponents see it as a bait-and-switch, where a Web server is scripted to look out for search engines that are spidering in order to create an index of search results. The search engine thinks it is selecting a prime match to its request based on the meta tags that the site administrator has input. However, the search result is misleading because the meta tags do not correspond to what actually exists on the page. Some search engines, such as Lycos, Hotbot and Excite, even ban cloaked Web sites. Proponents of cloaking assert that cloaking is necessary in order to protect the meta data, as only the spider is supplied with the meta tags

Computational Thinking
Computational thinking (CT) is a study of the problem-solving skills and tactics involved in writing or debugging software programs and applications. Computational thinking is closely related to computer science, although it focuses primarily on the big-picture process of abstract thinking used in developing computational programs rather than on the study of specific programming languages. As a result, it often serves as an introduction to more in-depth computer science courses.

Core Logic
Related Terms •coring •Storage Logical Partition •Cache Logical Partition •dual-core •multi-core technology •logical •core memory •Logical Link Control layer •EPLD •logic gate Also referred to as the core logic chipset, the central processing logic of a complete system (such as a desktop PC), a component of that system or a function of a specific component. A system��s core logic can include a controller for handling memory functions, a cache for instructions, the logic for bus interfaces and the functions of data paths.

CPU - Central Processing Unit
CPU (pronounced as separate letters) is the abbreviation for central processing unit. Sometimes referred to simply as the central processor, but more commonly called processor, the CPU is the brains of the computer where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system.

Credit Freeze
Credit Freeze - Also known as a credit security freeze or security freeze. A credit freeze is a method by which a consumer can limit access to his or her credit report to companies with which he or she has a pre-existing credit relationship, such as mortgage, auto loan and credit card, or a company they wish to enter into a credit relationship with. By freezing their credit report, consumers can block the opening of a new credit account without their specific permission. When the consumer wants to open a new credit account, they can lift the freeze to allow access to their credit report by the potential creditor.

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(1) Often abbreviated DB, a database is basically a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a database as an electronic filing system. Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records. For example, a telephone book is analogous to a file. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number.

Short for Data Definition Language, DDL is a computer language that is used to define data structures. In Database Management Systems (DBMS), it is used to specify a database scheme as a set of definitions (expressed in DDL). In SQL, the Data Definition Language (DDL) allows you to create, alter, and destroy database objects.

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Email Appending
Email Appending - The process of merging a database of customer information that lacks email addresses for the customers with a third-partys database of email addresses in an attempt to match the e-mail addresses with the information in the initial database. A typical email appending scenario involves a business that has name, address and telephone data on its customers to do business through mail or over the telephone, but the company wants to expand into e-mail communication and pays a third party that has a database of e-mail addresses in order to merge the data together.

Short for electrically programmable logic device, an integrated circuit that is comprised of an array of programmable logic devices that do not come pre-connected; the connections are programmed electrically by the user.

Escape Character
A special character that can have many different functions. It is often used to abort the current command and return to a previous place in the program. It is also used to send special instructions to printers and other devices. An escape character is generated with the Escape key, a special key that exists on most computer keyboards. When the escape character is combined with other characters, it is called an escape sequence.

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(v.) (1) To prepare a storage medium, usually a disk, for reading and writing. When you format a disk, the operating system erases all bookkeeping information on the disk, tests the disk to make sure all sectors are reliable, marks bad sectors (that is, those that are scratched), and creates internal address tables that it later uses to locate information. You must format a disk before you can use it. Note that reformatting a disk does not erase the data on the disk, only the address tables. Do not panic, therefore, if you accidentally reformat a disk that has useful data. A computer specialist should be able to recover most, if not all, of the information on the disk. You can also buy programs that enable you to recover a disk yourself.

Fourth-Generation Language
Often abbreviated 4GL, fourth-generation languages are programming languages closer to human languages than typical high-level programming languages. Most 4GLs are used to access databases

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Google+ (Google Plus)
Google+ (Google Plus) is Googles attempt at social networking. The Google+ service that delivers functionality and many features similar to those of Facebook. Features in Google+ include Posts for posting status updates, Circles for sharing information with different groups of people (like Facebook Groups), Sparks for offering videos and articles users might like, and Hangouts and Huddles for video chatting with a friend or group of friends. Google+ follows the companys earlier social networking endeavors, including the short-lived Google Wave, which Google discontinued in early 2010. Google+ is expected to expand to a larger audience as the project matures.

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Short for High Definition Video, HDV is a video format, commonly used in camcorders, that allows high-definition footage to be recorded onto standard DV tapes. HDV uses Long GOP MPEG2 compression. The HDV format includes both 720p and 1080i specifications. The HDV standard was established by Canon Inc., Sharp Corp., Sony Corp., and the Victor Company of Japan, Ltd.

High Definition Photo
In digital camera terminology, high definition photo is a shooting mode found on some digital cameras that produces a 1920x1080 pixel high-definition (HD) quality photo that will perfectly fit a wide-screen HDTV (16:9) for full-screen viewing. High definition photos may also be available on some digital cameras when capturing motion picture recording (videos) using the camera, rather than still pictures. Digital cameras that have the high definition photo feature also will offer an optional component cable that you can use to connect the digital camera directly to the HDTV.

HTML - HyperText Markup Language
Short for HyperText Markup Language, the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. HTML is similar to SGML, although it is not a strict subset. HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes. The correct structure for an HTML document starts with (enter here what document is about) and ends with . All the information youd like to include in your Web page fits in between the and tags.

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A basic command. The term instruction is often used to describe the most rudimentary programming commands. For example, a computers instruction set is the list of all the basic commands in the computers machine language.

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A keyboard is the set of typewriter-like keys that enables you to enter data into a computer. Computer keyboards are similar to electric-typewriter keyboards but contain additional keys. The keys on computer keyboards are often classified as follows: •alphanumeric keys -- letters and numbers •punctuation keys -- comma, period, semicolon, and so on. •special keys -- function keys, control keys, arrow keys, Caps Lock key, and so on. QWERTY, AZERTY, Dvorak and Other Keyboards The standard layout of letters, numbers, and punctuation is known as a QWERTY keyboard because the first six keys on the top row of letters spell QWERTY. The QWERTY keyboard was designed in the 1800s for mechanical typewriters and was actually designed to slow typists down to avoid jamming the keys. The AZERTY keyboard is the French version of the standard QWERTY keyboard. AZERTY keyboards differ slightly from the QWERTY keyboard.

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A system for communicating. Written languages use symbols (that is, characters) to build words. The entire set of words is the languages vocabulary. The ways in which the words can be meaningfully combined is defined by the languages syntax and grammar. The actual meaning of words and combinations of words is defined by the languages semantics.

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(mal´wãr) (n.) Short for malicious software, malware refers to software designed specifically to damage or disrupt a system, such as a virus or a Trojan horse.

Short for Microsoft Interface Definition Language, MIDL defines interfaces between client and server programs. Microsoft includes the MIDL compiler with the Platform SDK to enable developers to create the interface definition language (IDL) files and application configuration files (ACF) required for remote procedure call interfaces and COM/DCOM interfaces. MIDL also supports the generation of type libraries for OLE Automation. Create client and server programs for heterogeneous network environments that include such operating systems as Unix and Apple. [Source: MSDN Library - MIDL]

Mobile Security
Mobile security involves protecting both personal and business information stored on and transmitted from smartphones, tablets, laptops and other mobile devices. The term mobile security is a broad one that covers everything from protecting mobile devices from malware threats to reducing risks and securing mobile devices and their data in the case of theft, unauthorized access or accidental loss of the mobile device.

Mobile Security
Mobile Security involves protecting both personal and business information stored on and transmitted from smartphones, tablets, laptops and other mobile devices. The term mobile security is a broad one that covers everything from protecting mobile devices from malware threats to reducing risks and securing mobile devices and their data in the case of theft, unauthorized access or accidental loss of the mobile device.

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Nonrepudiation - In reference to digital security, nonrepudiation means to ensure that a transferred message has been sent and received by the parties claiming to have sent and received the message. Nonrepudiation is a way to guarantee that the sender of a message cannot later deny having sent the message and that the recipient cannot deny having received the message.

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OS - operating system
The operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. For large systems, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic cop -- it makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system.

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PDA - personal digital assistant
Short for personal digital assistant, a handheld device that combines computing, telephone/fax, Internet and networking features. A typical PDA can function as a cellular phone, fax sender, Web browser and personal organizer. PDAs may also be referred to as a palmtop, hand-held computer or pocket computer.

Pharming - Similar in nature to e-mail phishing, pharming seeks to obtain personal or private (usually financial related) information through domain spoofing. Rather than being spammed with malicious and mischievous e-mail requests for you to visit spoof Web sites which appear legitimate, pharming poisons a DNS server by infusing false information into the DNS server, resulting in a users request being redirected elsewhere. Your browser, however will show you are at the correct Web site, which makes pharming a bit more serious and more difficult to detect. Phishing attempts to scam people one at a time with an e-mail while pharming allows the scammers to target large groups of people at one time through domain spoofing.

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QWERTY keyboard
(Pronounced kwer-tee). QWERTY refers to the arrangement of keys on a standard English computer keyboard or typewriter. The name derives from the first six characters on the top alphabetic line of the keyboard. Arrangement of Characters The arrangement of characters on a QWERTY keyboard was designed in 1868 by Christopher Sholes, the inventor of the typewriter. According to popular myth, Sholes arranged the keys in their odd fashion to prevent jamming on mechanical typewriters by separating commonly used letter combinations. However, there is no evidence to supportthis assertion, except that the arrangement does, in fact, inhibit fast typing.

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Retina HD Display
Retina HD Display is a marketing term first introduced by Apple with the debut of its iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus smartphones. Retina HD Displays have a high-definition quality resolution and pixel density of at least 326 pixels per inch, which is sufficiently high enough for the average person to be unable to discern the individual pixels at a normal viewing distance.

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Smartphones are a handheld device that integrates mobile phone capabilities with the more common features of a handheld computer or PDA. Smartphones allow users to store information, e-mail, install programs, along with using a mobile phone in one device. For example a Smartphone could be a mobile phone with some PDA functions integrated into the device, or vise versa.

Software-Defined Servers
A marketing term coined by HP for its ultra-low power Project Moonshot servers developed for specific data center workloads such as cloud computing and big data. The HP Moonshot software-defined servers use 89 percent less power and 80 percent less space than traditional server systems and reduce complexity by 97 percent.

SORBS - SORBS was originally an anti-spam project where a daemon would check, in real time, all servers from which it received e-mail to determine if that e-mail was sent via various types of proxy and open-relay servers. SORBS has evolved into SORBS DNSbl (DNS-based blacklist) which now includes more than 3 million listed hosts that are considered to be compromised (Web servers which have vulnerabilities that can be used by spammers).

(1) The capacity of a device to hold and retain data. (2) Short for mass storage.

Storage Logical Partition
Storage Logical Partition (SLPR) defines the assignment of one or more Cache Logical Partitions (CLPRs) and the assignment of one or more target physical ports for the Cache Logical Partitions (CLPRs) to use

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(n) A command inserted in a document that specifies how the document, or a portion of the document, should be formatted. Tags are used by all format specifications that store documents as text files. This includes SGML and HTML. (v) To mark a section of a document with a formatting command.

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Pronounced yoo-niks, a popular multi-user, multitasking operating system developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. Created by just a handful of programmers, UNIX was designed to be a small, flexible system used exclusively by programmers. UNIX was one of the first operating systems to be written in a high-level programming language, namely C. This meant that it could be installed on virtually any computer for which a C compiler existed. This natural portability combined with its low price made it a popular choice among universities. (It was inexpensive because antitrust regulations prohibited Bell Labs from marketing it as a full-scale product.)

User Defined Function
û´z&r di-fînd´ funk´sh&n) (n.) A programmed routine that has its parameters set by the user of the system. User defined functions often are seen as programming shortcuts as they define functions that perform specific tasks within a larger system, such as a database or spreadsheet program.

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Virtual SAN
Virtual SAN is a software-defined storage offering from VMware that enables enterprises to pool their storage capabilities and to instantly and automatically provision virtual machine storage via simple policies that are driven by the virtual machine.

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World Wide Web
The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files. This means you can jump from one document to another simply by clicking on hot spots. Not all Internet servers are part of the World Wide Web.

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Best known for its copier machines, Xerox Corporation has also had a profound influence on the computer industry. During the 70s and 80s, its Palo Alto Research Center conducted pioneering work on user interfaces. Many of their inventions, such as the mouse and the graphical user interface (GUI), have since become commonplace. Xerox continues to do groundbreaking research, especially in the area of document management.

XML Schema Definition - XSD
Short for XML Schema Definition, a way to describe and validate data in an XML environment. (A schema is a model for describing the structure of information.) XSD is a recommendation of the W3C. XSD has advantages over earlier XML schema languages, such as DTD. Because XSD is written in XML, there is no need for a parser. XSD defines a richer set of data typessuch as booleans, numbers, dates and times, and currencies -- which is invaluable for e-commerce applications. DTDs, on the other hand, express data types as explicit enumerations, which makes validation much more difficult and less accurate.

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YaCy (pronounced as - ya see) is a free and open source (GPL-licensed) distributed search engine. Using principles of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, it is fully decentralized. That means all users of the search engine network are equal, and the network does not store user search requests, which makes it impossible for anyone to censor the content of the shared index. YaCy also helps to prevent spam in search results by performing link verification as part of the search process.